Morgan, J. (1995). BLACK MALES ON CAMPUS: Early intervention single-gender `Academies’ show promise. Black Issues in Higher Education, 12(14), 14.
Now in its second summer, the JMU program was conceived and made a reality by the university’s associate vice president for student affairs, Byron Bullock, who said one evening he became “fed up” with statistics showing that the number of African-American males under correctional supervision, ages 18-24, increased by 105 percent from 1980-1991 — while the number of Black males enrolled in college increased by only 29 percent for the same period. Bullock’s observations of the problems Black males experience in predominantly white colleges have been corroborated by the research of such scholars as Dr. Jacqueline Fleming, associate adjunct professor of psychology at Barnard College and author of the book, “Blacks in College.” Fleming, in an interview, said she found that Black males have greater adjustment problems than Black females in white learning environments, although they tend to do well — both socially and academically — in a more nurturing Black setting. One of the problems faced by similar programs in public elementary and secondary schools around the nation is the charge of gender discrimination. The JMU program avoided that issue from the beginning. In order for the state of Virginia to fund the program, it was necessary that there be a similar program for females somewhere in the state. The State Council of Higher Education created such a program for females at Longwood College, as well as other programs for so-called “special” populations. While the Longwood program is not exclusively for Black females, they are the majority participants, said JMU’s Bullock. “But we are now looking at possibly developing an all-Black female component to our program here.”
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