Fitzgerald, T. D. (2009). Controlling the black school-age male: Psychotropic medications and the circumvention of public law 94-142 and section 504. Urban Education, 44(2), 225-247.
Public schools have historically embedded mechanisms for control within their policies and procedures through a variety of means. This article investigates a moderately sized integrated public school system in an upscale to low socioeconomic Big Ten university community in Illinois. Through descriptive measures, the author examines the racial ramifications Of using psychotropic medications (e.g., Ritalin) to control the undesired academic and social behavior of Black school-age boys. The Study examines how federal policies (i.e.. the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1990 and Section 504) have allowed for the introduction of disproportionate behavioral-stimulant use with Black males as a mode for social control. This article situates findings within a larger argument regarding the ways in which racism and reproduction of the racialized social structure, from the inception of the United States through the 21st Century, have included a cycle of control targeting Blacks, and specifically Black males.
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