Flowers, L. A., & Pascarella, E. T. (2003). Cognitive effects of college: Differences between African American and Caucasian students. Research in Higher Education, 44(1), 21-49.
In this longitudinal study of African American and Caucasian students from eighteen 4-year institutions, objective tests were used to estimate the cognitive effects of race in college, while applying statistical controls for an extensive set of confounding influences including precollege and background traits, institutional characteristics, and academic and social experiences. Evidence from the study suggests that in the first 3 years of college Caucasian students scored higher than their African American counterparts on seven standardized tests measuring critical thinking skills, knowledge of mathematics, reading comprehension, science reasoning, and writing skills. Implications for future research are discussed.
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