Dunbar, C. J. (1999). African American males and participation: promising inclusion, practicing exclusion. Theory Into Practice, 38(4), 241.
Part of a special issue on the politics of participation in school reform. A study examined exclusion practices evident in the alternative school movement for students on whom the system has given up. Data were obtained in an alternative school in the Midwest. Findings indicated that students at the school were isolated from positive student role models. Moreover, nearly all of the students were African-American males. Many parents voiced distrust for the school, and students expressed concern about placement in an alternative school. Recommendations on how to shift the process of exclusion in alternative schools to one of inclusion are provided.
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